Normal Anatomy of the Shoulder Joint

The shoulder is the most flexible joint in the body, making it the most susceptible to instability and injury. It is a ‘ball-and-socket’ joint. A ‘ball’ at the top of the upper arm bone (humerus) fits neatly into a ‘socket’ (glenoid) which is part of the shoulder blade (scapula).

The shoulder joint is made up several bones and soft tissues. It has three bones, the collarbone (clavicle), scapula, and humerus.

Find out more about Normal Anatomy of the Shoulder Joint with the following links.

Shoulder Instability

Shoulder instability is a chronic condition that causes frequent dislocations of the shoulder joint.

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Rotator Cuff

Rotator cuff is the group of tendons in the shoulder joint providing support and enabling wider range of motion. Major injury to these tendons may result in a tear of these tendons, and the condition is called a rotator cuff tear.  It is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in middle-aged adults and older individuals.

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Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder, also called adhesive capsulitis, is a condition characterized by pain and loss of motion in shoulder joint. It is most common in adults 40-60 years old, and women are typically more affected by it than men.

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Shoulder Impingement

Shoulder impingement is the condition of inflammation of the tendons of the shoulder joint. It is one of the most common causes of pain in the adult shoulder. The shoulder is a ‘ball-and-socket’ joint. A ‘ball’ at the top of the upper arm bone (humerus) fits neatly into a ‘socket’ (glenoid) which is part of the shoulder blade (scapula). Shoulder impingement is also called swimmer’s shoulder, tennis shoulder, or rotator cuff tendinitis.

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Clavicle Fracture

Clavicle fracture, also called broken collarbone, is a very common sports injury seen in people who are involved in contact sports, such as football and martial arts, and impact sports, such as motor racing. A direct blow over the shoulder that may occur during a fall on an outstretched arm or a motor vehicle accident may cause the clavicle bone to break. Broken clavicle may cause difficulty in lifting your arm because of pain, swelling and bruising over the bone.

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Shoulder Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic and surgical procedure performed for joint problems. Shoulder arthroscopy is performed using a pencil-sized instrument called an Arthroscope. The arthroscope consists of a light system and camera to project images to a computer screen for your surgeon to view the surgical site. Arthroscopy is used to treat disease conditions and injuries involving the bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and muscles of the shoulder joint.

Find out more about Shoulder Arthroscopy with the following links.

Bankart Repair

Biceps Tendonitis

Burners and Stingers

Bursitis of the Shoulder (Subacromial Bursitis)

Glenoid Labrum Tear